Fortigate – adding additional IP’s for PPPoE connections

Here in Australia we receive IP blocks for PPPoE connections. Since the IP is dynamically assigned to us we can’t manually add a “secondary IP” like you would with a static connection.

So what do you need to do?

Configure an IP pool!

  1. Go to Policy & Objects > Objects > IP Pools
  2. Specify whether it’s IPv4 or IPv6 and give a name
  3. Leave the type as Overload (unless you have a requirement to use the other types)
  4. Enter the additional IP’s given to you from your ISP
    Configuring IP Pools in GUI
  5. Now that you’ve configured your IP pool you can allocate inbound services to those additional IP’s. Configure your VIPs, VIP groups, and policies to use these additional IP’s and of course Test!

Fortigate Troubleshooting Cheatsheet

For all you Fortinuts out there I’m hoping this cheat sheet will help you as much as it’s helped me 🙂

CPU Utilisation

diag sys top

Fortigate Top Processes

Diagnose Sessions

diag sys session…
diag sys session filter <see below screenshot for options>


diag sys session filter dport 443 –> displays sessions that have a destination port of 443

diag sys session list –> displays sessions that match the filter

diag sys session clear –> clears sessions that match the filter


Fortigate Session Filter

Network troubleshooting commands

execute ping <ip or hostname>

execute traceroute <ip or hostname>

execute telnet <ip or hostname> <port>


Network troubleshooting

Running a packet trace

diag sniffer packet <interface> <filter> <verbose level logging>



  • Interface:  Network interface to sniff
  • Filter: Flexible logical filters for sniffer (or “none”).
    For example: To print UDP 1812 traffic between forti1 and either forti2 or forti3
    ‘udp and port 1812 and host forti1 and \( forti2 or forti3 \)’
  • Verbose logging:
    1: print header of packets
    2: print header and data from ip of packets
    3: print header and data from ethernet of packets (if available)
    4: print header of packets with interface name
    5: print header and data from ip of packets with interface name
    6: print header and data from ethernet of packets (if available) with intf name


diag sniffer packet any ‘port 5060’ 6

Run a packet trace

Running debug for traffic flow

1) Clear debug results and output to console

diag debug reset
diag debug enable
diag debug console timestamp enable
diag debug flow show console enable
diag debug flow show function-name enable


2) Set a filter and start the debug trace

diag debug flow filter <filter>
diag debug flow trace start <number>



diag debug flow filter port 5060

diag debug flow trace start 1000


3) Force stop the trace and reset the results

diag debug flow trace stop
diag debug reset

Debug flow

Get the system status

Get the system status including Fortigate version, hostname, operation mode, HA status, system time.

get sys status

Get the system performance status

Get the system performance status including CPU, Memory, network utilisation, uptime.

get sys performance status

Enjoy! 🙂

Fortigate: Configure High Availability

So this may not be necessary for most home users out there but for those that need a quick rundown on how to configure High Availability between Fortigates, I hope this helps:


  • All Fortigates need to have the same hardware configuration i.e. hard disk configuration, optional components installed, same model version.
  • All Fortigates need to have the same firmware build e.g. v5.0,build0271 (GA Patch 6)
  • All Fortigates need to be using the same operating mode e.g. NAT or Transparent
  • All Fortigates need be operating in the same VDOM mode
  • If all Fortigates are operating in multiple VDOM mode, have they all got the same VDOM configuration
  • All interfaces need to have a static IP address. If any interface is using DHCP you can’t configure HA
  • Fortigates that have an in built switch will not work. You will need to configure Interface Mode.

Boring stuff done, let’s get to work.

High level steps required to configure HA:

  1. Configure Fortigate units for HA operation individually and power off.
  2. Connect the Fortigates to the network
  3. Connect all interfaces (LAN, Heartbeat, Internet)
  4. Power on both Fortigate units
  5. Test!

Details Instructions

  1. Log onto the first Fortigate unit (FG1) and configure all your interface settings, policies, hostnames, VIPs, firewall addresses, routes etc.

    FG1# conf sys hostname
    FG1# conf sys interface
    FG1$ conf firewall policy

  2. Configure High Availability via CLI. Here is my standard setup but ensure you read the Fortigate manual for further clarification

    FG1# conf sys ha
    FG1# set mode a-a
    FG1# set group-name SAMHA
    FG1# set password Th!sIs@s3CurePa$$w0rd
    FG1# set hbdev “port2” 50 “port3” 50
    FG1# set session-pickup enable
    FG1# set override disable
    FG1# set priority 50
    FG1# set monitor “port1” “wan1”
    FG1# set pingserver-monitor-interface “port1”
    FG1# set pingserver-failover-threshold 1
    FG1# end

    – Set “hbdev”: this is the interface that you will connect to your second unit and monitors the heartbeat of the unit i.e. port2 on FG1 will be connected to port2 on FG2. The number after is the priority of that interface. It is recommended that you have at least 2 heartbeat interfaces configured.
    – Set “monitor”: this is the interface that the Fortigate will monitor. If there is a fail on this interface, the unit will failover to the second unit.
    – Set “priority”: this sets the priority of the cluster device. Whenever you change the device priority of a cluster unit, when a cluster negotiation occurs, the unit with the highest priority becomes the primary unit.

  3. Power off FG1
  4. Perform steps 1 to 3 on FG2. Power off FG2
  5. Connect all interfaces correctly, ensure switching is correct, and heartbeat Interfaces are connected.
  6. Power on both Fortigates at the same time.
  7. Log on to one of the units and identify which of them is the master Fortigate by entering

    FG1# get sys stat

    You should get output that looks like the below. You can see from the output that this unit is the master unit.

    FG1 # get sys stat
    Version: FortiGate-60D v5.0,build0271,140124 (GA Patch 6)
    Virus-DB: 19.00098(2013-09-01 11:46)
    Extended DB: 1.00000(2012-10-17 15:46)
    IPS-DB: 4.00385(2013-08-28 22:38)
    IPS-ETDB: 0.00000(2001-01-01 00:00)
    Serial-Number: FG60D3911452369
    Botnet DB: 1.00229(2013-09-01 11:39)
    BIOS version: 04000007
    Log hard disk: Available
    Internal Switch mode: interface
    Hostname: FG1
    Operation Mode: NAT
    Current virtual domain: root
    Max number of virtual domains: 10
    Virtual domains status: 1 in NAT mode, 0 in TP mode
    Virtual domain configuration: disable
    FIPS-CC mode: disable
    Current HA mode: a-a, master
    Branch point: 271
    Release Version Information: GA Patch 6
    System time: Mon Mar 15 16:19:18 1996

  8. Test failover using these tests as a bare minimum:
  9. – Power off a Fortigate unit
    – Unplug port1 (production network)
    – Unplug internet connection (wan1)
    – Unplug one of the two heartbeat interfaces

Go forth and ensure you can keep that 99.999999999% uptime 🙂

A parent’s guide to web filtering

Following on from my previous post where parents/guardians don’t know what their kids are up to online, I wanted to provide a simple solution that could be used by today’s Internet parents (The Enforcers :p).

Now I know that this may cause some outrage among the teens out there BUT as a recent teen and someone that has seen some of the abysmal content roaming on the internet for all the world to see, I want to help who I can, where I can, if they look for it.

So let’s get down to business shall we?


What’s so special about it you may ask? It’s a comprehensive AV and Web Filtering solution that can be customised (with some technical mumbo jumbo) to suit your requirements, oh and did I mention it’s completely FREE!

Here is a quick step by step guide on how to configure and implement Forticlient to your PC’s and Laptops.

  1. Download the software.
  2. Install the software using the default options (next, next, next, finish).
  3. Open the software by clicking on Start > All Programs > FortiClient > FortiClient
    Awesome home screens
  4. You’ll notice a handy little tab that’ll tickle your curiosity – yes, Parental Control.
  5. Click into the Parentl Control tab.
  6. Click on the settings button and you can now configure category based web filtering.
    Mmmm Parental Control
  7. Here is where the parental wizardy (judgement) happens. Select all the categories that you would like blocked, allowedwarned, or monitored by right clicking the category and selecting the option. By default, all categories are allowed.
  8. You’ll also notice that there is a Safe Search tickbox you can select. I would go ahead and tick that as well as the “Search Engine Safe Search (Google, Yahoo!, Bing, Yandex). If you type into google “Where can I get…..”, you’ll be surprised at what pops up!
  9. Once your Wizardy is complete and you’re satisfied at all the blocking you’ve done, click OK at the bottom. Your mission is almost complete…
    How do you lock settings so that the program cannot be easily uninstalled or settings altered?
  10. Lock it down: let’s do it. Click on File > Settings.
    Here you will see the settings page where you can configure other little wonderful things.
  11. Right on the bottom of the settings page, you will see a Lock. Here is where we will set our super awesome password.
    Lock it down
  12. Remember to put a password so awesome that only you will be able to remember it. Click OK on the password box, then click OK on the settings page to save the settings.
  13. Test, test, test! Try it out and see if all your hard work is actually working.
  14. Woohoo! Pat yourself on the back on a job well done 🙂

I’ll provide some more advanced management tips for this later but for now I believe you’re already one step ahead of the game!